The joys and the hopes, the griefs and the anxieties of the men of this age, especially those who are poor or in any way afflicted, these are the joys and hopes, the griefs and anxieties of the followers of Christ.
Overview, Historical Background and Theoretical Perspectives Overview and Background Adolescence is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood.
It is the period from puberty until full adult status has been attained. In our society, adolescence is a luxury. It is reported that the real reason there is the developmental period of adolescence was to delay young people from going into the workforce, due to the scarcity of jobs.
There are also varying views on the actual time line of adolescence-especially about when it ends. Typically, we view adolescence beginning at puberty and ending at 18 or 21 years.
Others suggest that there is a period of late adolescence that extends well into what is now known as the period of young adulthood. He defined this period to begin at puberty at about 12 or 13 years, and end late, between 22 years to 25 years of age.
Hall also described adolescence as a period of Sturm und Drang," -- storm and stress.
It is a literary movement full of idealism, commitment to a goal, revolution against the old, expression of personal feelings, passion and suffering. Hall saw an analogy between the objectives of this group of young writers at the turn of the eighteenth century and the psychological characteristics of adolescence.
According to Hall's analogy and expansion of Darwin's concept of biological "evolution. The law of recapitulation claimed that the individual organism, during its development passes through states that correspond to those that occurred during the history of mankind.
To sum up, the individual relives the development of the human race from early animal like primitivism, through a period of savagery, to the more recent civilized ways of life that characterize maturity. Hall describes this particular aspect of adolescent development storm and stress in detail in a chapter of his book on adolescence --"Feelings and Psychic Evolution.
Energy, exaltation, and supernatural activity are followed by indifference, lethargy, and loathing. Exuberant gaiety, laughter, and euphoria make place for dysphoria. Egoism, vanity, and conceit are just as characteristic of this period of life as are abasement, humiliation, and bashfulness.
Hall believed that adolescent characteristics contained both the remnants of an uninhibited childish selfishness and an increasing idealistic altruism. The qualities of goodness and virtue are never so pure, but never again does temptation preoccupy the adolescent's thinking. Hall described the adolescenct as wanting solitude and seclusion, while he finds himself entangled in crushes and friendships.
Never again does the peer group have such a strong influence over the person. The adolescent also moves between the exhibition of several personality traits including exquisite sensitivity and tenderness at some points in time to callousness and cruelty at other times.
The display of apathy and inertia also vacillate with enthusiastic curiosity, along with the urge to discover and explore. According to Hall, during this stage of development, there also is a yearning for idols and authority that does not exclude a revolutionary radicalism directed against any kind of authority.
In late adolescence, according to Hall, the individual recapitulates the state of the beginning of modern civilization. This stage corresponds to the end of the developmental process: Hall's genetic psychology did not see the human being as the final and finished product of the developmental process; it allowed for indefinite further development Muuss,p.
Sigmund Freud and the Psychoanalytic Theory of Adolescent Development Freud paid relatively little attention to adolescent development only to discuss it in terms of psychosexual development.
He shared a common idea with that of Hall's evolutionary theory: Freud did maintain that the individual goes through the earlier experiences of mankind in his psychosexual development. According to Freud and psychoanalytic theory, the stages of psychosexual development are genetically determined and are relatively independent of environmental factors Muuss,p.
He also stated that the physiological changes are related to emotional changes, especially an increase in negative emotions, such as moodiness, anxiety, loathing, tension and other forms of adolescent behavior.
Anna Freud's Theory of Adolescent Defense Mechanism Anna Freud assigns greater importance to puberty as a critical factor in character formation. She also places much emphasis on the relationship between the id, the ego and the superego.
This interaction results in the instinctual reawakening of the libidinal forces, which, in turn, can bring about psychological disequilibrium.
The painfully established balance between ego and id during the latency period is disturbed by puberty, and internal conflict results. Thus, one aspect of puberty, the puberty conflict, is the endeavor to regain equilibrium Muuss,p.
Anna Freud dealt mainly with deviant or pathological development and paid very little attention to normal sexual adjustment. She described obstacles to normal development: Among the many defense mechanisms the ego can use, Freud considered two as typical of pubescence: Asceticism is due to a generalized mistrust of all instinctual wishes.
This mistrust goes far beyond sexuality and includes eating, sleeping, and dressing habits. The increase in intellectual interests and the change from concrete to abstract interests are accounted for in terms of a defense mechanism against the libido.
This naturally brings about a crippling of the instinctual tendencies in adult life, and again the situation is "permanently injurious to the individual" A.Frequently Asked Questions.
In both, the issues dealt with spring from the individual’s life experience, and both the therapist and spiritual director provide a safe, non-judgmental environment of trust and care in which the client/directee can grow in self-awareness and inner freedom.
Religion, as defined by Webster, is “an. In fact, the best experience that I had in my life is when I was a candidate for the municipal elections in my country four years ago. This was for me the best challenging involvement in my life. This was for me the best challenging involvement in my life.
“A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life depend on the labors of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving.”—Albert Einstein.
What may be maturity to one person or culture, may be nothing of the sort to another. Furthermore, ‘maturity’ is something that is presumably demonstrated in action – and what may be appropriate behaviour in one setting or situation is not in another. Sam Uyeno is a senior manager in West Monroe Partners’ Energy & Utilities practice, based in Los Angeles.
He has more than 12 years of experience in the electric, water, gas, and nuclear power industries, creating and delivering effective solutions that address a wide range of business issues.
If the infinite life acknowledged is free and full of endless possibilities, then what is the terminal, constricted, finite life? It is just the opposite—a life limited in possibilities and human potential, a life that does not motivate us to achieve fulfillment for ourselves or for those around us.