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Persistent desire or efforts to control drug use. Pattern of drug-impaired performance in Substance abuse research papers or occupational circumstances or when dug use is dangerous. The abandonment of important social, occupational or recreational activities for the sake of the drug.
Continued drug use despite serious drug-related problems. The DSM also distinguishes between dependence and abuse, drawing up the parallel diagnosis of psychoactive substance abuse. This is when the use of the drug is at an abnormal level, but not yet a dependency issue. A person that continue to use a drug even if it had a 1 social, occupational, psychological or physical impact, or continued to use it in physically dangerous situations.
Alloy et alWikipedia The three terms substance dependence, substance addiction and substance abuse, are hence melted down to the two diagnoses of psychoactive substance dependence; including the elements of dependence and addiction, and psychoactive substance abuse.
The behaviourists view alcoholism as a powerful habit that is maintained by various cues and consequences. What is the primary reinforcer is debated, but suggestions like social acceptance, reduction of psychological tension and avoidance of psychological withdrawal symptoms have been made.
Alloy et al The behaviourists believe in two theories for substance abuse and addiction. The first one is the tension-reduction hypothesis, and the other is the opponent process theory. The tension-reduction hypothesis assumes the dynamics of alcoholism to be rooted in personal troubles faced by all.
However some people are inclined to have a drink to alleviate the stress and discomfort, and if successful alcohol has a positive association. However, excessive drinking may cause stress and discomfort, manifested as guilt, and a viscous cycle is started.
Alloy et al Behaviourists have identified high risk and low risk persons based on personality scores. A person with outgoing, aggressive, impulsive and antisocial features where considered at higher risk for alcoholism, also the situation is critical to stress- handling.
It states that the human brain is organised such that any strong emotional state, regardless if it is pleasant or unpleasant, will elicit the opposite state opponent process to suppress and counteract the original state and that this mechanism will strengthen over time.
Alloy et al The theory states that after a while the relaxation with drinking state A will be cancelled out by underlying tension and irritability state B or opponent process. Then state B will be experienced directly as withdrawal symptoms.
Alloy et al The early behavioural programs for alcoholics relied on aversion conditioning. They had initial success, but suffered from heavy relapse rates.
Currently programs look into inadequate coping skills, such as unemployment and marital conflicts, and try to remedy these problems. Alloy et al The cognitive theories has been developed by amongst others, Jean Piaget and Albert Ellis.
Wikipedia The cognitive theories view alcoholism as motivated and maintained by negative reinforcement, much like the behaviourists.
However they focus on cognitive processes such as expectations, self-evaluations and attributions perceived as mediators for alcohol abuse. There are three theories; expectancy theory, self-awareness model and self-handicapping strategy.
Alloy et al The expectancy theory focuses on the expectations of the effect of alcohol, as a critical component in whether people will use or abuse alcohol. These alcohol expectations are developed through parents, peers, television and movies and together they from a schema.
This schema will determine how that individual will respond to drinking. Hence if the positive expectancies outweigh the negative people will drink. This theory may be good at describing why people begin to drink, but not why they continue, as the expectations between drink number 1 and Alloy et al The self-awareness model proposes that alcohol is used to disrupt information processing, and decrease self-awareness.
It can be used in two ways; firstly if self-awareness involves negative feelings, then suppression of self-awareness will be negative reinforcing. Secondly alcohol can disinhibit and enable the person to flirt or be funny, a positive reinforcement.
This theory however describes the alcoholic as reflective, self-focused and sensitive to criticism. Empirical findings describe an alcoholic as aggressive, extroverted and undercontrolled. Alloy et al The self-handicapping model reasons that the alcoholic will drink if placed in a situation where he is likely to fail.
The drink will be his excuse to fail, shifting the blame form themselves to the alcohol. There is no proof that this model leads to alcoholism, but it ties well in with both the expectancy theory and self-awareness model. Alloy et al Treatments the cognitive way aim to attack the cognitive variables that are faulty.Substance Abuse.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is very prevalent in many countries. A drug is any substance that modifies the body’s normal functioning.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a drug as any substance or product that modifies the behavior of a person for the benefit of the recipient.
Research papers for. View Substance Abuse Research Papers on timberdesignmag.com for free. Find out more about a range of topics related to drug abuse and addiction. Locate publications, articles, press releases, and links to additional resources on these topics.
Free substance abuse papers, essays, and research papers. Genetic and Environmental Factors Influence Substance Abuse in Adolescence As defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV ), substance abuse is a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress.
Research Papers. Cost of Drug Abuse on Society - Drug abuse is a rampant problem in the United States. Drugs can be abused in a variety of different ways by people from every walk of life. Most of us have been affected by drug abuse either directly or indirectly.
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