Audiences A reference for sport psychologists and researchers interested in the psychosocial aspects of sport. A primary text for upper-level and graduate students in social psychology of sport; also a supplemental text for courses in sport psychology, psychology of coaching, and sport sociology. Sophia Jowett, PhD, is a senior lecturer in sport and exercise psychology at Loughborough University.
Social influence Social influence is an overarching term given to describe the persuasive effects people have on each other. It is seen as a fundamental value in social psychology and overlaps considerably with research on attitudes and persuasion. The three main areas of social influence include: Social influence is also closely related to the study of group dynamics, as most principles of influence are strongest when they take place in social groups.
The first major area of social influence is conformity. Conformity is defined as the tendency to act or think like other members of a group. The identity of members within a group, i. Individual variation among group members plays a key role in the dynamic of how willing people will be to conform.
In the Asch conformity experimentspeople frequently followed the majority judgment, even when the majority was objectively wrong. The second major area of social influence research is compliance.
Compliance refers to any change in behavior that is due to a request or suggestion from another person. The foot-in-the-door technique is a compliance method in which the persuader requests a small favor and then follows up with requesting a larger favor, e.
A related trick is the bait and switch. Obedience as a form of compliance was dramatically highlighted by the Milgram studywherein people were ready to administer shocks to a person in distress on a researcher's command. This is a prediction that, in being made, actually causes itself to become true.
For example, in the stock marketif it is widely believed that a crash is imminent, investors may lose confidence, sell most of their stock, and thus actually cause the crash.
|Degree Details||Early history[ edit ] In its formation, sport psychology was primarily the domain of physical educators, not researchers, which can explain the lack of a consistent history. The birth of sports psychology in Europe happened largely in Germany.|
Similarly, people may expect hostility in others and actually induce this hostility by their own behavior. Group dynamics A group can be defined as two or more individuals that are connected to each another by social relationships.
They have a number of emergent qualities that distinguish them from aggregates: Implicit rules and expectations for group members to follow, e. Implicit rules and expectations for specific members within the group, e.
Patterns of liking within the group, and also differences in prestige or status, e. Temporary groups and aggregates share few or none of these features, and do not qualify as true social groups.
People waiting in line to get on a bus, for example, do not constitute a group. To a large extent, humans define themselves by the group memberships which form their social identity.
The shared social identity of individuals within a group influences intergroup behavior, the way in which groups behave towards and perceive each other. These perceptions and behaviors in turn define the social identity of individuals within the interacting groups.
The tendency to define oneself by membership in a group may lead to intergroup discrimination, which involves favorable perceptions and behaviors directed towards the in-group, but negative perceptions and behaviors directed towards the out-group. Groups often moderate and improve decision making ,[ citation needed ] and are frequently relied upon for these benefits, such as in committees and juries.
A number of group biases, however, can interfere with effective decision making. For example, group polarization, formerly known as the "risky shift," occurs when people polarize their views in a more extreme direction after group discussion.
More problematic is the phenomenon of groupthink. This is a collective thinking defect that is characterized by a premature consensus or an incorrect assumption of consensus, caused by members of a group failing to promote views which are not consistent with the views of other members.Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific timberdesignmag.com terms thoughts, feelings, and behavior refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans.
Jowett has published in peer-reviewed journals, including the British Journal of Social Psychology, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, The Sport Psychologist, International Journal of Sport Psychology, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Sciences and Sports, and Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and timberdesignmag.com: $ Social Psychology in Sport [Sophia Jowett, David Lavallee] on timberdesignmag.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Social psychology in sport has grown impressively in the last decade, but no single text has addressed all the important topics in the field—until now.4/5(6). Degree Option M.S. in Sport and Exercise Science: Social Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity.
The sport and exercise science master’s degree totals 33 credit hours, culminating in either comprehensive exams or an original data-based thesis.
Sophia Jowett, PhD, is a senior lecturer in sport and exercise psychology at Loughborough timberdesignmag.com received her PhD from the University of Exeter in Her main research revolves around the affective, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of interpersonal relationships in sport.3/5(2).
Jowett has published in peer-reviewed journals, including the British Journal of Social Psychology, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, The Sport Psychologist, International Journal of Sport Psychology, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Sciences and Sports, and Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Price: $