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Contact Technology Cook Biotech is working with numerous natural tissues to develop advanced biomaterials. One such biomaterial being used extensively is small intestinal submucosa — also called SIS — which is a strong, pliable tissue taken from porcine intestine that provides a scaffold for patient cells to repair damaged tissue.
What is SIS technology? Imagine an advanced biomaterial that supports tissue repair with a scaffold-like matrix that has an all natural structure and composition—a biomaterial that does not encapsulate when surgically implanted, but is gradually remodeled, leaving behind organized tissue.
SIS technology supports remodeling with the added benefits of long-term strength, ease of use, and cost effectiveness. SIS is an extracellular matrix that combines the flexibility of nature with the precision of science to help the body restore itself.
What is an extracellular matrix ECM? The ECM is the structural and functional substance that surrounds cells in nearly all tissues in the body. A three-dimensional matrix, ECM supports cells in addition to playing other vital roles.
While the composition of the ECM varies by tissue, it is generally composed of four major types of molecules: Structural proteins, such as collagen and elastin Glycoproteins, such as fibronectin and laminin Glycosaminoglycans GAGs and proteoglycans, such as hyaluronan, heparan sulfate, heparin and dermatan sulfate Matricellular proteins, such as thrombospondins, osteopontin, and tenascins Collagen provides the main structural framework in natural living tissue and is the most abundant protein in the ECM.
GAGs and proteoglycans keep the matrix well hydrated by absorbing water and also bind growth factors, which are important for cell signaling. Matricellular proteins add additional functional utility to the ECM.
What is the role of the ECM in tissue repair? ECM has been viewed as a support structure upon which cells orient and move themselves in response to other cells. But ECM is more than that. It also provides the architectural structure and the environment necessary for tissue repair.
The tissue-repair processes occur through the coordinated activity of the cells that reside within the ECM. As the ECM is necessary for tissue maintenance, it also plays a major role in tissue repair. Where do SIS products come from? The submucosa is located between the mucosal and muscular layers of the small intestine.
The submucosal layer provides strength to the small intestine through a complex organization of collagen that forms a fibrous matrix. SIS material is obtained from the intestine in a manner that removes all cells, but leaves the naturally fibrous and porous nature of the matrix intact.
Composition The thin, yet strong, layer of the small intestine from which SIS products are derived possesses a 3-dimensional architecture that allows for intimate cell contact and consists primarily of protein. Safety and biocompatibility To assure patient safety, the SIS material undergoes a thorough disinfection, decellularization, and viral inactivation process.
As a final step in the process, all SIS products are sterilized by validated sterilization methods. SIS products have been rigorously tested in accordance with recognized biocompatibility standards.
References Biochemistry References noted with a yellow highlight refer to human patients.
A biocompatible polysaccharide hydrogel-embedded polypropylene mesh for enhanced tissue integration in rats. Tissue Eng Part A. Porcine small intestinal submucosa sheets as a scaffold for human bone marrow stem cells.
Int J Biol Macromol. Positive changes in bone marrow-derived cells in response to culture on an aligned bioscaffold. Mechanical conditioning of cell-seeded small intestine submucosa: Assessment of angiogenic properties of biomaterials using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay.
Endothelial cell adherence to small intestinal submucosa: In vivo remodeling breakout session summary. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Marrow-derived cells populate scaffolds composed of xenogeneic extracellular matrix. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed.US Driver's License Numbers Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, perhaps others.
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