Word Origin for science C Greek skhizein "to split, rend, cleave," Gothic skaidan, Old English sceadan "to divide, separate;" see shed v. Modern restricted sense of "body of regular or methodical observations or propositions concerning a particular subject or speculation" is attested from ; in 17c.

From falling snowflakes to our entire galaxy, we count fifteen incredible examples of mathematics in nature! Snowflakes exhibit six-fold radial symmetry, with elaborate, identical patterns on each arm.

Researchers already struggle to rationalise why symmetry exists in plant life, and in the animal kingdom, so the fact that the phenomenon appears in inanimate objects totally infuriates them.

Snowflakes form because water molecules naturally arrange when they solidify.

These bonds align in an order which maximises attractive forces and reduces repulsive ones. As you know, though, no two snowflakes are alike, so how can a snowflake be completely symmetrical within itself, but not match the shape of any other snowflake?

Well, when each snowflake falls from the sky, it experiences unique atmospheric conditions, like wind and humidity, and these affect how the crystals on the flake form.

Each arm of the flake goes through the same conditions, so consequently crystallises in the same way. Each arm is an exact copy of the other. Scientists and flower enthusiasts who have taken the time to count the seed spirals in a sunflower have determined that the amount of spirals adds up to a Fibonacci number.

This is not uncommon; many plants produce leaves, petals and seeds in the Fibonacci sequence. So, why do sunflowers and other plants abide by mathematical rules? In simple terms, sunflowers can pack in the maximum number of seeds if each seed is separated by an irrational-numbered angle.

The most irrational number is known as the golden ratio, or Phi. Coincidentally, dividing any Fibonacci number by the preceding number in the sequence will garner a number very close to Phi. The data revealed a ratio that is about two at birth. Dr Verguts discovered that, between the ages of sixteen and twenty, when women are at their most fertile, the ratio uterus length to width is 1.

This is a very good approximation of the golden ratio.

Although more common in plants, some animals, like the nautilus, showcase Fibonacci numbers. A nautilus shell is grown in a Fibonacci spiral. The spiral occurs as the shell grows outwards and tries to maintain its proportional shape.

Imagine never outgrowing your clothes or shoes. You could still be rocking those overalls your mum put you in when you were four years old. Not every nautilus shell makes a Fibonacci spiral, though they all adhere to some type of logarithmic spiral.

In geometric terms, fractals are complex patterns where each individual component has the same pattern as the whole object. This means the entire veggie is one big spiral composed of smaller, cone-like mini-spirals. Or it could be they subconsciously realise romanescos involve mathematics, and therefore share an association with school.Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathematics.

In this latter sense, the distinction between foundations of mathematics and philosophy of mathematics turns out to be quite vague.

An undergraduate degree in mathematics provides an excellent basis for graduate work in mathematics or computer science, or for employment in such mathematics-related fields as systems analysis, operations research, or actuarial science. Karl Smith is professor emeritus at Santa Rosa Junior College in Santa Rosa, timberdesignmag.come Amazon Devices · Read Ratings & Reviews · Fast Shipping · Deals of the Day2,,+ followers on Twitter.

If mathematics is the basic language of creation, its nature is to reveal God, and its purpose is to glorify God; it must be desecularized.

That is, the patina of secularization with which mathematics has become encrusted must be polished away so that its true, God-reflecting nature shines through. Inquiry: AN OCCASIONAL COLUMN Describing Nature With Math How do scientists use mathematics to define reality?

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And why? By Peter Tyson; Posted A branch of mathematics that is a sort of generalization of calculus. Calculus of variations seeks to find the path, curve, surface, etc., for which a given function has a stationary value (which, in physical problems, is usually a minimum or maximum).

Mathematically, this involves finding stationary values of integrals of the form I=int_b^af(y,y^.,x)dx.

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The University of Arizona - Institute for Mathematics & Education