Distinguish prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. Distinguish old-fashioned, blatant biases from contemporary, subtle biases.
Prejudice refers to the attitudes and feelings—whether positive or negative and whether conscious or non-conscious—that people have about members of other groups. In contrast, stereotypes have traditionally been defined as specific beliefs about a group, such as descriptions of what members of a particular group look like, how they behave, or their abilities.
As such, stereotypes are cognitive representations of how members of a group are similar to one another and different from members of other groups. Prejudice and stereotyping are generally considered to be the product of adaptive processes that simplify an otherwise complex world so that people can devote more cognitive resources to other tasks.
However, despite any cognitively adaptive function they may serve, using these mental shortcuts when making decisions about other individuals can have serious negative ramifications.
The horrible mistreatment of particular groups of people in recent history, such as that of Jews, African Americans, women, and homosexuals, has been the major impetus for the study of prejudice and stereotyping.
Thus, the original conceptions and experiments were concerned almost entirely with conscious, negative attitudes and explicitly discriminatory actions.
However, as the social acceptability of prejudice and stereotypes has changed, the manifestations of prejudice and stereotypes have also changed. In response to these changes, and given that people who reject prejudice and stereotyping can still unwittingly internalize stereotypic representations, the study of prejudice and stereotyping has recently moved to include beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that could be considered positive and not obviously or overtly prejudiced.
Importantly, even when prejudice and stereotypes are ostensibly positive e. Because of these new conceptions of bias, there have also been methodological adaptations in the study of prejudice and stereotyping that move beyond the conscious attitudes and behaviors of individuals to measure their implicit prejudice and stereotypes as well.
This article gives a quick tour through the social psychological study of prejudice and stereotyping to inform the reader about its theoretical background, measurement, and interventions aimed to reduce prejudice.
General Overviews There are several books and chapters that offer a broad view of the social psychological research on prejudice and stereotyping. There are two texts that are excellent for undergraduates.
First, Whitley and Kite covers the general field of research on stereotyping and prejudice, providing an excellent primer for theory and research on the causes and consequences of prejudice and stereotyping. Second, Stangor is a collection of key social psychological readings on stereotypes and prejudice.
The key readings text is especially useful, as it can be assigned in sections for a general class or used in its entirety for a class specifically on prejudice. Beyond the introductory text and primer for key readings, though potentially unsuitable for undergraduate use, there are three chapters from the Handbook of Social Psychology that are useful for researchers who want to get an understanding of the progression of research and focus of current theory and research.
Although there is some overlap in the content of the three handbook chapters, each chapter makes a notably unique contribution that warrants their inclusion.
Fiske provides a history and thorough review of influential perspectives on prejudice and stereotyping. Expanding on FiskeYzerbyt and Demoulin provides an additional in-depth perspective on theories of how groups are created and sustained.
Dovidio and Gaertner focuses on the bases of group-based biases and provides a thorough consideration of theory and research on stereotype change and prejudice reduction. Finally, in addition to the aforementioned chapters, Dovidio, et al. In Handbook of social psychology. Edited by Susan T.
Focuses mainly on the psychological foundations of intergroup bias and how to resolve those biases in order to reduce prejudice.
There are discussions about the categorization process, explicit versus implicit biases and what mediates and moderates those biases.As a result of holding negative beliefs (stereotypes) and negative attitudes (prejudice) about a particular group, people often treat the target of prejudice poorly, such as excluding older adults from their circle of friends.
Connecting Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination; Item Function Connection Example;. Stereotypes and Prejudices.
– An unfavorable opinion formed against a person or group based on a stereotype. Propaganda – Information which is used to promote a cause or to injure or enhance the reputation of a group, individual, or position, and which may either not be factual, may “bend” the facts, or does not tell the entire.
Social group prejudice and stereotyping are actually difficult to evaluate due to social desirability, and people are not usually willing to share and express or even admit their discriminatory views of . Nov 17, · In this episode of Crash Course Psychology, Hank tackles some difficult topics dealing with prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination.
There's a lot here, so let's get started. Percent of articles on prejudice, stereotypes, or stereotyping Figure Percent of articles in four leading social psychology journals that use the term prejudice, stereotypes, or stereotyping in the abstract (data aggregated across journals).
Group Identifiers, Stereotypes and Prejudices Group Identifiers, Stereotypes and Prejudices More often than not, when someone stereotypes someone it is more negative than positive. A negative generalization to a racial group can however be thought of as positive through association.