Uffizi, Florence Uffizi Gallery, Florence In the great part of renaissance and baroque history painting s, the figures, architectural elements and props were drawn from various monochrome drawings and afterward recomposed on a cartoon or on the canvas itself. Rarely, if ever, did the painter have the whole scene set up in his studioto say nothing of outdoor scenes. Thus, we must presume that lighting was largely a factor of artistic invention and pictorial convention.
Algae Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the brownred and green algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, and they are no longer classified as plants as defined here.
With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common; primary chloroplasts derived from cyanobacteria containing chlorophylls a and b, cell walls containing celluloseand food stores in the form of starch contained within the plastids.
They undergo closed mitosis without centriolesand typically have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta red algae and Glaucophyta glaucophyte algae Factors affecting the paint industry, also have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteriaalthough they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups also differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastidawhose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event.
This is the broadest modern definition of the term 'plant'. In contrast, most other algae e. They are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida, presumably having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in even the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past.
The green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae including the stoneworts and the land plants. However, it is now known that the land plants evolved from within a group of green algae, so that the green algae by themselves are a paraphyletic group, i.
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Paraphyletic groups are generally avoided in modern classifications, so that in recent treatments the Viridiplantae have been divided into two clades, the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta including the land plants and Charophyta.
There are about 4, species,  mainly unicellular or multicellular marine organisms such as the sea lettuce, Ulva. The other group within the Viridiplantae are the mainly freshwater or terrestrial Streptophyta, which consists of the land plants together with the Charophyta, itself consisting of several groups of green algae such as the desmids and stoneworts.
Streptophyte algae are either unicellular or form multicellular filaments, branched or unbranched. The freshwater stoneworts strongly resemble land plants and are believed to be their closest relatives.
Fungi Linnaeus' original classification placed the fungi within the Plantae, since they were unquestionably neither animals or minerals and these were the only other alternatives. With 19th century developments in microbiologyErnst Haeckel introduced the new kingdom Protista in addition to Plantae and Animalia, but whether fungi were best placed in the Plantae or should be reclassified as protists remained controversial.
InRobert Whittaker proposed the creation of the kingdom Fungi. Molecular evidence has since shown that the most recent common ancestor concestorof the Fungi was probably more similar to that of the Animalia than to that of Plantae or any other kingdom.
Unlike plants, which generally gain carbon through photosynthesis, and so are called autotrophsfungi do not possess chloroplasts and generally obtain carbon by breaking down and absorbing surrounding materials, and so are called heterotrophic saprotrophs.
In addition, the substructure of multicellular fungi is different from that of plants, taking the form of many chitinous microscopic strands called hyphaewhich may be further subdivided into cells or may form a syncytium containing many eukaryotic nuclei.
Fruiting bodies, of which mushrooms are the most familiar example, are the reproductive structures of fungi, and are unlike any structures produced by plants. Diversity of living green plant Viridiplantae divisions Informal group.A credit score is a number that lenders use to determine the risk of loaning money to a given borrower.
Credit card companies, auto dealerships and mortgage bankers are three types of lenders that.
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