It is, therefore, probable that the imitation of musical cries by articulate sounds may have given rise to words expressive of various complex emotions. Current debate addresses each of these. One part of the adaptive function question is whether music constitutes an evolutionary adaptation or exaptation i. Steven Pinkerin his book How the Mind Worksfor example, argues that music is merely "auditory cheesecake " - it was evolutionarily adaptive to have a preference for fat and sugar but cheesecake did not play a role in that selection process.
Suppose you began your description by noting that the robber had a nose, two eyes, a mouth, and two ears. In this paper, I will argue that music analyses can occasionally fall prey to such empty descriptive language.
Like the description of our hypothetical robber, many otherwise truthful observations simply fail to be informative. The paper should not be regarded as an attack on Prof.
My intention is simply to demonstrate that grievous problems of descriptive language are evident even in the work of renowned theorists—and to show that such problems are at least in principle avoidable.
An architect, for example, can distinguish a Corinthian column from Doric and Ionic orders by the presence of sculpted acanthus leaves near the top of the column. We might say that sculpted leaves are a feature of the classic Corinthian column.
In the analysis of artistic artifacts, features provide the essential descriptive primitives by which the unique characters of individual works may be identified, and by which the commonalities of styles, periods, and genres may be portrayed.
Properties of Features  At a minimum, we might expect a proposed feature to be present in an artifact or class of artifacts. If it is claimed that X is a feature of work Y, then we would naturally expect X to be located, or evident in Y. Sometimes features may be notable by their absence, however.
For example, the absence of harmonic thirds and sixths in a tonal-period work would be something of an aberration. Since, the absence of something commonplace may itself be noteworthy, we might refer to this property as negative presence.
Note that negative presence presupposes the existence of a normative repertoire or established set of expectations. This focus allows a distinction to be made between those features that arise within the context of the work itself intratextual and those that arise from relationships between works intertextual.
Both positive presences and negative presences may be either intertextual or intratextual. An intertextual negative presence arises when the accumulated evidence suggests that a work belongs to a certain class of works, yet fails to exhibit a property that is otherwise assumed to be essential to membership in that class or group.
By contrast, an intratextual negative presence arises within a work when the work itself establishes the expectation of some event or phenomenon that nevertheless remains unrealized. Note that even in the case of positive presences, a proposed feature is rarely directly represented in an artistic artifact.
For example, the pitches of a score do not directly encode the melodic intervals. On what basis, then, can one defend the assumption of voice? Those theorists who have contemplated such matters typically rely on one of two appeals.
One might appeal to notational conventions such as the use of separate staves or differentiation via stem direction. That is, theorists rightly consider melodic intervals to be implied by individual successive pitches, and rightly assume that such intervals may be readily derived in most circumstances.
Like melodic intervals, most features are deciphered, interpreted, or derived from the object of analysis. Derived presences may include such concepts as deceptive cadences, prolongations, syncopations, suspensions, ritornellos, and other phenomena. Often, these derived concepts are more notable and compelling features than directly notated pitches or durations.
For example, one might rigorously define the property fuddle to be the semitone pitch distance between the second-last notes occurring in odd numbered measures whose stem directions extend upward.
In the case of conventional tonal theory, the notion of a diatonic step is an example of such a derivative concept. In the case of set theory, the notion of an interval-class is an example of such a concept.
One was based on subjective perceptual experience, and the other was based on notational practice.
It is important to understand that these are just two of innumerable forms of appeals. One need not refer either to perception or to the notation in order to justify a useful descriptive concept.
Usually, the language is largely given a priori, but there are always opportunities to change or expand the descriptive conceptual vocabulary.
|Hispania. Volume 75, Number 3, September 1992||Vernon Wicker, editor,|
|Points of interest||A composition for at least three voices in harmony, and without accompaniment. This definition must of course exclude many compositions frequently styled part-songs, and perhaps so named by their composers, but which would be better described under some other heading.|
A composer might choose to create a work whose organization is intimately linked to the fuddle concept. This simply illustrates that useful descriptive concepts can spring into existence within a given community or culture. Within each of these descriptive domains, however, it is still possible to give either fruitful or empty descriptions.
What constitutes a feature depends on the scope of our gaze.Transcript of History Of Minimalism. music does not seem to move from one place to another.
Within any musical segment there may be some sense of direction, but frequently the segments fail to lead to or imply one another. They simply follow one another. The "texture" of much minimalist music is based on canonic imitation, exact.
Missionary Influence and Plains Indian Culture. The story of the Cheyenne hymnbook 1 is one of adaptability and perseverance in the face of intense cultural pressure. Government attitudes in America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were especially hostile toward Native American culture.
As to their musical euphony, they do not sing uniformly as is done elsewhere, but diversely with many rhythms and tunes, so that in a crowd of singers such as is the custom among these people, you will hear as many different songs and differentiations of the voices as you see heads, and hear the organic melody coming together in one consonance.
Why Study Music History? Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
1. Introduction. Water in My Hand is the title of an album of songs by Shelly Rudolph, 1 a jazz and soul singer from Portland, Oregon. It is also the title of one of the songs on the album and part of a line or lyric from that song.
Beyond that, it is a sequence of Roman letters, a sequence of English words, a phrase belonging to the English language about which one established brand of. Essay on the Origin of Languages (French: Essai sur l'origine des langues) is an essay by Jean-Jacques Rousseau published posthumously in Rousseau had meant to publish the essay in a short volume which was also to include essays On Theatrical Imitation and The Levite of Ephraim.