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Definition[ edit ] Evaluation is the structured interpretation and giving of meaning to predicted or actual impacts of proposals or results. It looks at original objectives, and at what is either predicted or what was accomplished and how it was accomplished. So evaluation can be formativethat is taking place during the development of a concept or proposal, project or organization, with the intention of improving the value or effectiveness of the proposal, project, or organisation.
It can also be summativedrawing lessons from a completed action or project or an organisation at a later point in time or circumstance. Having said this, evaluation has been defined as: A systematic, rigorous, and meticulous application of scientific methods to assess the design, implementation, improvement, or outcomes of a program.
It is a resource-intensive process, frequently requiring resources, such as, evaluate expertise, labor, time, and a sizable budget  "The critical assessment, in as objective a manner as possible, of the degree to which a service or its component parts fulfills stated goals" St Leger and Wordsworth-Bell.
The core of the problem is thus about defining what is of value. There are two function considering to the evaluation purpose Formative Evaluations provide the information on the improving a product or a process Summative Evaluations provide information of short-term effectiveness or long-term impact to deciding the adoption of a product or process.
The central reason for the poor utilization of evaluations is arguably[ by whom? This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this section if you can. March Learn how and when to remove this template message Depending on the topic of interest, there are professional groups that review the quality and rigor of evaluation processes.
Evaluating programs and projects, regarding their value and impact within the context they are implemented, can be ethically challenging. Evaluators may encounter complex, culturally specific systems resistant to external evaluation.
Furthermore, the project organization or other stakeholders may be invested in a particular evaluation outcome. Finally, evaluators themselves may encounter " conflict of interest COI " issues, or experience interference or pressure to present findings that support a particular assessment.
General professional codes of conductas determined by the employing organization, usually cover three broad aspects of behavioral standards, and include inter- collegial relations such as respect for diversity and privacyoperational issues due competencedocumentation accuracy and appropriate use of resourcesand conflicts of interest nepotismaccepting gifts and other kinds of favoritism.
The Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation has developed standards for program, personnel, and student evaluation. The Joint Committee standards are broken into four sections: Utility, Feasibility, Propriety, and Accuracy.
Various European institutions have also prepared their own standards, more or less related to those produced by the Joint Committee. They provide guidelines about basing value judgments on systematic inquiry, evaluator competence and integrity, respect for people, and regard for the general and public welfare.
The principles run as follows: This requires quality data collection, including a defensible choice of indicators, which lends credibility to findings.
This also pertains to the choice of methodology employed, such that it is consistent with the aims of the evaluation and provides dependable data.
Furthermore, utility of findings is critical such that the information obtained by evaluation is comprehensive and timely, and thus serves to provide maximal benefit and use to stakeholders.
This requires that evaluation teams comprise an appropriate combination of competencies, such that varied and appropriate expertise is available for the evaluation process, and that evaluators work within their scope of capability. A key element of this principle is freedom from bias in evaluation and this is underscored by three principles: Independence is attained through ensuring independence of judgment is upheld such that evaluation conclusions are not influenced or pressured by another party, and avoidance of conflict of interest, such that the evaluator does not have a stake in a particular conclusion.For example, if you wanted to argue that Frye’s account of oppression is better than both de Beauvoir’s and Bartky’s, comparing and contrasting the main arguments of those three authors might help you construct your evaluation—even though the topic may not have asked for comparison/contrast and the lists of similarities and differences.
Writing a ‘describe, evaluate and compare’ essay Describe and evaluate one behavioural treatment for phobias. Refer to an alternative form of treatment in your answer. In contrast to most other sorts of essay, however, there are three distinct requirements. Serial Murder.
View printable version (pdf) Behavioral Analysis Unit-2 National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Critical Incident Response Group. Describe, compare, contrast, and critically evaluate the effectiveness of both positivist and phenomenological methodology adopted when studying society.
Sociology is the study of human society, including both social action and organisation. Rhetorical functions in academic writing: Writing critically Introduction. So you need to describe other people's points of view and compare and contrast them with your own, stating their advantages and disadvantages.
weigh evidence and develop a set of standards on which to base your evaluation. When writing critically, you need to. § Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics, Adopted (a) The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the school year.