Comparing political philosophies essay

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Comparing political philosophies essay

Comparing and Contrasting China and Egypt Sitting on opposite ends of the ancient world were two distinguished civilizations, known for their contribution to the advancement of humanity and their endurance from the erosion of time throughout the ages, dynastic China and Ancient Egypt.

During the time when these two empires were born, humans had just found ways to domesticate crops through agriculture, eliminating the need for every individual in a tribe to be a hunter or a gatherer.

Instead, the surpluses allowed early humans to specialize in specific occupations. Freed from the time consuming task of finding food, a few major civilizations sprung up such as Egypt and China.

With Egypt as the westernmost of the river civilizations, and China as the easternmost, it is inevitable for them two to have major differences due to the lack of sharing between them.

However, interestingly, even though they were geographically separated and were politically isolated from each other, they had major similarities as well. These similarities, such as political organization, and irrigation technologies, and differences like artistic endeavours were as a result of surrounding environments, and religion which contributed to their longevity and survival.

Any superficial look at the two civilizations will show their most important similarity, which is the way their government was organized. In the ancient world, elaborate systems like democracy were not implemented or experimented upon.

Instead, the governments were an extension of tribal leadership, with one ruler over all the peoples of each nation.

In Egypt, this figure was the Pharaoh, a supposed messenger between the gods and man, which soon evolved until the Pharaoh became a god himself.

Similarly, China had an emperor who had all of the de jure power. Under them were powerful scholars. In Egypt they were the priests, and in China, they were the shi, whom advised the Pharaoh or the Emperor on important matters, and kept records through writings.

However, if one looks deeper, he will see that the similarities are also embedded in how these governments were rationalized and sustained. In Egypt, the power of the pharaoh was legitimized by divine means, since to the Egyptian people, he was a godlike figure. Therefore, his words, laws, and authority came directly from the gods.

The same can be said about the Chinese emperor, though to a lesser extent. In China, the power of the Emperor was due to the Mandate of Heaven. The Mandate of Heaven stated that the power of the Emperor came from the heavens, and not from the people, leading to an authoritative rule.

The similar use of this ancient variation of divine right had similar results in their respective civilizations. However, there is one major addition to the Chinese way of governance that the Egyptians did not utilize, which is the inclusion of a philosophy.

This philosophy, Confucianism, promotes, and is based on, the service to the state. Born in a time where political chaos reigned, it is not surprising that Confucianism played a central role in the stabilization, solidification, and sustainability of China.

Not only does Confucianism ensure loyalty of the people and government to an extent, but it also contributes to a further legitimisation to the centralization of power.

The centralization of government, and the pyramid model of rule which were present in both Egypt and China was because of this version of divine right and for China, philosophy. Looking at the political perspectives of both nations, the reasoning for similarities mentioned above are clear, with the geographical isolation of the two being the main explanation.

Egypt was completely surrounded by deserts in all directions except to the north, and China was surrounded by the Himalayas, and coasts in almost every direction as well.

This means that they were naturally isolated, but it also meant that the people were not separated. Unlike Mesopotamian civilizations which were consisted of city states due to the open space and an abundance of resources, Egypt and China were confined to a closed space with the only source of resources being the rivers that they lived near.

Thus, the people, rulers, and by extension, the civilizations were not scattered, but concentrated, leading to a nation easily centralized.

The most important result of this centralization and legitimization of power is its contribution to the longevity. Especially for China with its Confucianist philosophies, longevity was evident with the survival and implementation of the philosophy itself in modern days being proof.

Locke versus Hobbes

Power, when separated, led to many warring nations self destructing each other, like the Mesopotamians, or the Greeks who came in later.

Even China became destabilized when the essential centralization was dissolved. Ergo, the political similarities were important to their respective survival. Another similarity caused by the environment is the irrigation technology of both nations.

As previously mentioned, the geography isolated the two civilizations from their neighbours. This was a major advantage for the centralized government, but a disadvantage for the people who needed food in order to survive, especially because the surroundings were mostly infertile.

However, this does not mean China and Egypt were in a constant state of starvation. The vital technology that prevented this very likely situation was agriculture and the irrigation that aided it. In Egypt, irrigation was easier than that of China due to the annual floods that occurred in a moreorless predictable pattern.The Psychology of Security.

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Below is an essay on "Republican vs. Democrat Party" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

we are able to determine that the political philosophies from which they originate have completely opposing ideologies.

Comparing political philosophies essay

Haidt describes a study in which he examines how well liberals, conservatives, and moderates understand each other. From page of The Righteous Mind (emphasis added): When I speak to liberal audiences about the three "binding" foundations - Loyalty, Authority, Sanctity - I find that many in the audience don't just fail to resonate; they .

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