Why was it begun then, and into what kind of world was it born? Its roots go back to the middle of the eighteenth century when there was a great revival in the Church of England inspired by the preaching of John Wesley and others. Their emphasis on individual conversion and justification by faith led them to be called Evangelicals. As this movement grew there was an increasing desire to spread the Gospel where it had not been heard.
Armenians in Iran ca. Bournoutian Prior to the third century A. Intermarriage among the Iranian and Armenian nobility was common. The two peoples shared many religious, political, and linguistic elements and traditions and, at one time, even shared the same dynasty. Sasanian policies and the Armenian conversion to Christianity, in the fourth century, however, alienated the Armenians from Zoroastrian Iran and oriented them toward the West.
The Arab conquests which ended the Iranian Empire and the conversion of Iran to Islam in the seventh century culturally separated the Armenians even further from their neighbour. In the eleventh century, the Seljuk Turks drove thousands of Armenians to Iranian Azerbaijan, where some were sold as slaves, while others worked as artisans and merchants.
The Mongol conquest of Iran in the thirteenth century enabled the Armenians, who were treated favourably by the victors, to play a major role in the international trade among the Caspian, Black, and Mediterranean seas.
Armenian merchants and artisans settled in the Iranian cities bordering historic Armenia. The latter part of the fifteenth century witnessed the weakening of the White Sheep and the attempts of the Ottoman sultan, Bayazid 11to take advantage of the situation and to extend his domains eastward into Armenia and northwestern Iran.
At the dawn of the sixteenth century, however, Iran was unified under a new dynasty, the Safavids and after some nine centuries once again acquired the sense of nationhood which has continued into the present. The Safavids assumed importance during the early fourteenth century when Sheikh Safi ad-Din established his Sufi order in Iranian Azerbaijan.
The order obtained the support of a number of major Turkic tribes, who called themselves the kizil-bash, or "red heads" from the red caps that they wore.
Thousands of Armenians were force to leave their land.
The Ottomans pushed deep into Armenia and on August 23,at the Battle of Chaldiran, destroyed the Iranian army through superior numbers and artillery.
Although Selim captured Tabriz, the admimistrative center of the Safavids, he had to withdraw a week later, as Ottoman military leaders refused to winter in Tabriz or to pursue the enemy into the Iranian highlands.
This pattern was to be repeated a number of times, particularly during the reign of Shah Tahmasb Iwho also pursued scorched-earth policy when he had to face the mighty Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent The harsh Armenian climate and difficulties in transportation and in communications with Constantinople made it possible for the Safavids to repeatedly survive such defeats.
Although the Safavids managed to recover Tabriz, Iran relinquished most of eastern Anatolia. The first peace agreement between the two powers in left the western parts of historic Armenia in Ottoman bands, while the eastern parts ended up under Iranian control.
Realizing the vulnerability of Tabriz, Tahmasb moved the capital south to Qazvin. Caught in the middle of these warring powers, some Armenians were deported by the Ottomans to Constantinople from Tabriz, Karabagh, and Nakhichevan and others, by the Iranians, to Iranian Azerbaijan from Van.
To replace them, Sultan Selim and his successors settled Kurdish tribes in Armenia, a policy which continued into the seventeenth century. They were a nomadic people who were exempt from cash taxation, but had to present a quota of their herds and guard the border regions.
Their settlement in historic Armenia was to create a major problem later for the Armenians when the state was powerless to control the Kurds or, conversely, when it actually used them against the Armenians. The protracted Ottoman-Safavid war and the resulting forced migrations depopulated parts of historic Armenia, and the Kurdish settlement changed its social and ethnic balance.
Recognizing the comparative weakness of the Iranian army, he quickly concluded a treaty with the Ottomans inCeding eastern Armenia and parts of Iranian Azerbaijan. He then began the Formation of a new force, recruiting Georgian and Armenian mercenaries and Converts as sharpshooters, and, with European help, fashioned an artillery and the basis of a modem army.
He moved his capital from Qazvin to Isfahan, a safer location. Isfahan was also closer to Baghdad, the soft underbelly of the Ottoman Empire. In the autumn of the shah advanced to retake Iranian Azerbaijan and to force the Ottomans out of Transcaucasia as well. He succeeded in taking the cities of Tabriz, Marand, Ordubad, Akulis, and the province of Nakhichevan, which included the town of Julfa.
The Armenian merchants of Julfa, who had been engaged in international trade for some time, were especially happy with the Iranian capture of Julfa. According to one primary source, the Sunnis of Nakhichevan province were killed and their villages were razed by the Safavid army.
All other contemporary sources, however, indicate that only the main fortress of Nakhichevan was destroyed in and that the Armenian population was not moved until The siege lasted over seven months and resulted in the conscription of over 10, local Armenians and Muslims, which.
The Ottomans, however, did advance, catching the shah unprepared. Primary sources estimate that between and sometoArmenians were removed from the area. Thousands died crossing the Arax River. Most of the Armenians were eventually settled in Iranian Azerbaijan, where other Armenians had settled earlier.
The wealthy Armenians of Julfa were brought to the Safavid capital of Isfahan. The Julfa community was accorded special care and seems to have suffered less in their migration.
They were settled across the banks of the Zayandeh Rud and in a town, called New Julfa Nor Jughawas constructed especially for them.History and the Production of the “Culture of Shiraz” Setrag Manoukian Introduction History is particularly relevant in the prescriptive field of public state-ments.
In Iran, history has been important in the construction of the national imagination. History plays a crucial role, even though—or be-. Shiraz. When I think about this stunning city, it is honestly a miracle that my face doesn't break from smiling so hard.
Shiraz was the first city I visited in Iran, and jeez, what a way to start! Shiraz is the 6th most populated city in Iran and the capital of the province of Fars.. Hafez was born in Shiraz, timberdesignmag.com parents were from Kazerun, Fars timberdesignmag.come his profound effect on Persian life and culture and his enduring popularity and influence, few details of his life are known.
Introduction of a city of Shiraz Last Update: Wednesday 14 June Submitted by ray-admin on Mon, Shiraz is one of the biggest city in Iran and its capital city of Fars province.
Enjoy a steam train experience and ride the Manx Electric Railway, the Snaefell Mountain Railway and more on this fully escorted, 4 night Isle of Man holiday.
IRAN - IRAN Archaic Signet of Civilization Contents General Information History Natural Scenery Tourism Social Life of Iranians Modern Iran before Iran - Iran Located in Asia * noushin eshratkhah It has five main cities: Tehran(the capital of Iran) Esfahan Shiraz Mashhad Tabriz * .