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Background In Aesthetics, Beardsley develops a philosophy of art that is sensitive to three things: To explain each of these elements further: Marxist, Formalist, psychoanalytic, semiotic, historical, biographical.
Analytic philosophy, with its emphasis on language and strong empiricist tendencies, had gained ascendancy in American universities in little more than 20 years, and dominated the philosophical scene.
Beardsley responded to each of the three. His position on developments in the arts is probably best described as open-minded moderation. He welcomed new developments, and reference to new works and works that lack the luster of fame, notoriety, or ready recognition appear frequently in Aesthetics and his other work.
He didn't automatically embrace the latest fad, fashion, or movement, however, but tried, as he said, to get something out of a work. As for art criticism, the school of criticism that attracted Beardsley, and that his philosophy of art ultimately underwrites, is the so-called New Criticism.
The New Criticism made the literary work the center of critical attention, and denied, or at least greatly devaluated, the relevance of facts about the origin of literary works, their effects upon individual readers, and their personal, social, and political influence.
Close reading is what is required of a critic, not biographical information about the author, a rundown of the state of society at the time the work was written, data about the psychology of creation, predictions about the effects of the work on society, and certainly not a piece of autobiography detailing the critic's own personal response to the work.
Though based in literary criticism, the New Criticism could be, and should be, extended to the other arts, Beardsley thought: Developments in philosophy were a different story. Beardsley embraced a general form of analytic philosophy not heavily influenced by either logical positivism or ordinary language philosophy, the dominant movements of the time.
For him, an analytic approach to the philosophy of art meant no more than critically examining the fundamental concepts and beliefs underlying art and art criticism.
Doing philosophy of that sort required clarity, precision, and a good eye for identifying, exposing, and evaluating arguments, but left aesthetics, as a systematic study, a real possibility. The Nature of Aesthetics Not all the arts could be covered in detail in even so long a book as Aesthetics—it's over pages—so Beardsley had to content himself with concentrating on three relatively disparate arts: In keeping with the conception of philosophy mentioned above, aesthetics was thought of as meta-criticism.
The then-current and still widespread view that philosophy is a second-order, meta-level, and essentially linguistic activity, taking as its object of study the pronouncements of first-order activities, such as chemistry, religion, or history, is reflected in Beardsley's view on the nature of aesthetics.
Critical statements are of three kinds, Beardsley thinks: The first concerns non-normative properties of works of art that are simply in it, in some sense, and are available, at least in principle, to anyone of normal eyes and ears if sufficiently sensitive, attentive, and experienced.
Thou shalt not kill.
Jun 26, · The fact that “Anchor and Hope” is titled in a binary proves to be emblematic of the film itself — about half of it is enjoyable. As opposed to ordinary essays, extended essays require more factual backup. Therefore, writing a solid extended essay requires considerably more dedication and research, as well as more critical thinking and experimentation. african arts AUTUMN VOL. 50, NO. 3 H˜˚˛˜˚˝ M. C˙ˆ˜, professor emeritus, taught the history of African art and architecture at UCSB from –, with terms at UCLA and.
The Ontology of Art The first chapter of Aesthetics is in part devoted to the ontology of art—or aesthetic objects, as Beardsley was then wont to say. The ontology argued for begins with a distinction between physical objects and perceptual objects.
In speaking of a thing being six feet by six feet in size and at rest, we're speaking of a physical object; in speaking of a thing being dynamic and frightening, we're speaking of a perceptual object.
Aesthetic objects are a subset of perceptual objects. This doesn't necessarily mean that aesthetic objects aren't physical objects, however.
The ontology is phenomenalistic in its leanings, though open to a more physicalistic interpretation. A presentation of an aesthetic object is defined as the object as experienced by a particular person on a particular occasion. Essentially, presentations are sense-data of aesthetic objects.Of the silent trilogy, Earth () is Dovzhenko’s most accessible film but, perhaps for these same reasons, most misunderstood.
In a Brussels’ film jury would vote Earth as one of the great films of all time. Earth marks a threshold in Dovzhenko’s career emblematic of a turning point in the Ukrainian cultural and political avant-garde - the .
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
Course materials, exam information, and professional development opportunities for AP teachers and coordinators. These days, everything is coming up SG50 - including the visual arts scene.
Galleries are commissioning works and presenting specially curated shows to mark Singapore's 50th anniversary. The Florida Review welcomes submissions. Please submit no more than one piece of fiction, nonfiction, graphic narrative, review, or digital story at a time.
Poets and visual artists may submit up to (but no more than) five poems or artworks as a single submission. Below we offer two examples of thoughtful reflective essays that effectively and substantively capture the author's growth over time at California State University Channel Islands (CI).